That is the primary research to offer a complete overview of the dietary consumption of adolescent ladies dwelling within the Dakar area, Senegal. Though wholesome meals represented greater than half of their complete dietary consumption, on common, their day by day consumption of unhealthy meals, in addition to their intakes of fat and sodium, had been excessive. Variations in weekday and weekend dietary intakes had been additionally famous. Particularly, imply intakes of calcium and zinc had been increased on the weekend than on weekdays, whereas the other was noticed for sodium. Our findings additionally present that whereas intakes of wholesome meals had been increased than that of unhealthy meals, fibre, iron, and calcium intakes remained insufficient whereas intakes of different vitamins resembling zinc and nutritional vitamins A and C seemed to be enough. Many of the wholesome meals consumed by adolescent ladies got here from the grains / tubers/ roots, and plantains meals group. The adolescents additionally consumed average quantities of meals from the meat/poultry, andfish and egg teams however low quantities of milk and dairy merchandise. The day by day consumption of fruit and veggies was additionally beneath WHO’s suggestion. Regardless of consuming meals from a wide range of meals teams, the day by day consumption of meals amongst adolescent ladies didn’t usually meet the really helpful EAT-Lancet reference for a nutritious diet. Nonetheless, some constructive behaviours had been noticed within the majority of adolescent ladies resembling consuming water, consuming three meals a day, and having breakfast.
Power and nutrient consumption
In our research, adolescents consumed a mean of roughly 2550 kcal per day, which is in keeping with the estimated vitality necessities for ladies on this age group, no matter bodily exercise degree. Power necessities for adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years previous fluctuate from 2075 kcal (contemplating a low degree of bodily exercise) to 2875 kcal (excessive degree of bodily exercise) . In distinction, a research amongst youngsters and adolescents (5–19 years previous) performed in 2010 within the Dakar area discovered that the imply day by day vitality consumption was 1400 kcal . This distinction in vitality consumption could also be partially defined by the inclusion of each youngsters and adolescents in Fiorentino et al.’s research. These variations can also replicate a change in meals behaviours amongst adolescents as a result of improve within the variety of road meals and quick meals retailers within the Dakar area over the previous decade . Nevertheless, our outcomes are much like Dapi et al.’s findings who reported a imply day by day vitality consumption of 2297 kcal amongst adolescent ladies (n = 119) dwelling in city Cameroon .
By way of macronutrient intakes, probably the most regarding discovering was that adolescents in our research consumed, on common, 110 g of fat per day. These findings are nicely above these of Keats et al.  who reported that the imply day by day consumption of fat was 36 g amongst 15–19-year-old adolescent ladies dwelling in Africa. Our findings are additionally barely increased than these reported by Dapi et al.  and Napier & Hlambelo  who discovered that adolescent ladies in city Cameroon consumed 70 g of fats  and people in South Africa consumed 75 g . Additionally, about 40% of the entire day by day energy consumed by adolescents in our research got here from fat, a proportion that’s barely increased than the 30% reported by Fiorentino et al.  and Dapi et al.  in addition to the 34% noticed in Napier et al.’s  research . The proportion of the entire vitality consumption from saturated fat was additionally above WHO’s suggestion of 10%  for almost all of adolescent ladies. This excessive consumption of saturated fat could also be associated to our discovering that 78% of ladies reported consuming quick meals day by day, with a imply consumption of 150 g per day, as these are likely to comprise excessive portions of saturated fat. These findings are worrisome as an extreme consumption of fat, notably in saturated fat, will increase adolescents’ danger of turning into chubby or overweight and of creating power illnesses in maturity, resembling cardiovascular illnesses . Nevertheless, it should even be famous that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat accounted for roughly 70% of the adolescents’ fats consumption. This discovering is encouraging as consuming meals which can be wealthy in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, resembling canola oil and olive oil, have been discovered to have useful results on lipid profile and blood strain, and to scale back irritation and oxidative stress [40, 41].
On common, adolescents in our research had an consumption of solely 15 g of fibre per day, which is nicely beneath the really helpful day by day consumption of 25 g . It is usually nicely beneath the 30 g beforehand noticed amongst adolescent ladies in city Cameroon  though much like the consumption (17 g) reported by Napier & Hlambelo  in South Africa. In reality, 98% of adolescents had inadequate intakes of fibre, which is barely increased than the proportion (88%) reported by Fiorentino et al. . Our findings could also be partially defined by the low consumption of fruit and veggies. Just like earlier findings [4, 8], solely 46% of adolescent ladies consumed fruit and veggies day-after-day. Due to this fact, selling fruit and veggies is vital, not solely to offer important micronutrients to their food plan but in addition to extend their consumption of fibre.
As beforehand talked about, iron deficiency in LMIC has been nicely documented, and our findings add to this physique of literature. In our research, the typical day by day iron consumption was 10 mg, which is nicely beneath the really helpful day by day nutrient consumption of 30 mg for a food plan with 10% bioavailable iron . Amongst our pattern, 82% of the adolescent ladies had been prone to insufficient iron intakes, as in comparison with Fiorentino et al.’s research which reported that 55% of kids and adolescents had inadequate iron intakes. Amongst adolescent ladies, Dapi et al.  estimated that roughly 50% of them had iron intakes that had been beneath the EAR. In our research, the excessive proportion of adolescent ladies who had been prone to insufficient iron intakes could also be attributed to the average consumption of iron-rich meals from the meat/poultry and, fish and eggs teams. The imply day by day common consumption of meals from these two teams mixed was solely 100 g. It’s value noting that there have been giant variations in intakes of those meals. For instance, solely 14% of adolescent ladies reported having consumed eggs over the three days whereas 50% reported consuming, on common, greater than 90 g of meat/poultry and, fish throughout the identical interval. Our findings can also be partially defined by the iron bioavailability reference used on this research. Particularly, to estimate the prevalence of inadequate iron consumption, a food plan with 10% of iron bioavailability was thought of because the reference in our research, as really helpful by WHO / FAO / UNU . Nevertheless, adolescents in our research might have had a food plan that extra carefully resembled that of a western food plan with a 15% iron bioavailability provided that the imply consumption of iron-rich meals was round 100 g. When contemplating such a food plan, 50% of adolescent ladies would have an inadequate iron consumption. This proportion can be much like that of Fiorentino et al.  who used 18% of iron bioavailability as a reference to estimate the proportion of inadequate iron consumption amongst city Senegalese school-aged youngsters and adolescents. Nonetheless, adolescents are probably in danger for iron-deficiency and iron deficiency anemia that are each the main causes of adolescent disability-adjusted life years amongst ladies aged 10–19 .
In comparison with Fiorentino et al.  who discovered that 79% of kids and adolescents (10–17 years previous) had inadequate intakes of vitamin A, this proportion was solely 23% in our research. Whereas decrease than Fiorentino et al.’s  findings, this proportion is in keeping with Dapi et al.  who discovered that solely 18% of adolescent ladies in city Cameroon had inadequate intakes of vitamin A . Regardless of a restricted consumption of greens (that are wealthy sources of vitamin A), our discovering was not shocking contemplating the frequent use of vegetable oil, which comprises 200 μg RE of vitamin A / 100 g, which is used for cooking native dishes. Furthermore, oil fortification with vitamin A grew to become obligatory on the finish of 2009 , which was a number of months earlier than Fiorentino et al.’s research was undertaken. This may increasingly additionally clarify the distinction between their outcomes and ours. Moreover, in our research, some (n = 8) adolescents benefited from dishes ready with crimson palm oil which is a superb supply of vitamin A. In reality, the imply day by day consumption of oils and fat in our group was 57 g (± 92 g) which gives an consumption of roughly 114 μg RE. The numerous consumption of fortified oils by adolescents can also have contributed to the excessive vitality consumption from fat.
Outcomes from our research confirmed that 54% of adolescents had insufficient intakes of vitamin C, as in comparison with 53% in Fiorentino et al.’s research and 35% in Dapi et al.’s research. As with fibre, this discovering is most definitely as a result of low consumption of fruit and veggies, that are the primary sources of vitamin C.
Zinc intakes seemed to be sufficient to satisfy adolescents’ dietary necessities. Whereas meals which can be wealthy in zinc, resembling meat, poultry, and fish, are sometimes additionally wealthy sources of iron, our research discovered that 55% of adolescents had a zinc consumption that was beneath worldwide suggestions, as in comparison with 24% for iron. Due to this fact, it’s probably that different meals sources of zinc contributed to adolescents’ consumption, resembling grains merchandise (which incorporates millet), legumes (resembling “niebe”), and dairy merchandise.
Equally to iron, calcium consumption was problematic as nearly all adolescent ladies had an inadequate consumption. This discovering is much like these of Fiorentino et al.  and Dapi et al. . The low consumption of milk and dairy merchandise might clarify this discovering which has additionally been reported in South Africa by Napier & Hlambelo . This example is regarding as it might jeopardize adolescent progress and improve the danger of osteoporosis afterward in life.
The imply sodium consumption on weekend days and weekdays was nicely above the two g restrict really helpful by WHO & FAO . Two-thirds of adolescents had intakes that exceeded this threshold. Just like fats consumption, the excessive sodium consumption could also be attributed to the consumption of quick meals and a few condiments. Additionally, 93% of adolescents had been having at the very least one meal outdoors their house, which was often lunch throughout college days. This may increasingly partially clarify the upper sodium consumption throughout weekdays. This meal most frequently consisted of a sandwich ready with white bread (the French baguette) and onion sauce (ready with bouillon cubes which comprise giant quantities of sodium), to which meat, inexperienced peas, French fries, or canned mackerel had been added. This extreme and power consumption of meals and dishes wealthy in sodium is especially worrisome given the elevated danger for hypertension later in life .
Regardless of there being variations in zinc, calcium, and sodium intakes between weekend days and weekdays, no variations had been noticed for meals teams. It’s doable that the slight (though not important) will increase in consumption of cereal, milk, dairy merchandise, and condiments had been sufficient to influence these intakes. This might have result in statistically important variations for these vitamins however not for meals teams.
Our findings confirmed that grains / roots / tubers and, plantains had been the primary meals group consumed by adolescent ladies and that rice was probably the most consumed meals on this group. This discovering isn’t a surprise as rice is the staple meals in Senegal. It was not unusual for giant portions of white rice (as much as 750 g per meal) and white bread (as much as 100 g of the “French baguette”) to be eaten both at lunch and/or dinner, day by day. Given the big portions of grain-based dishes consumed, these meals contributed a big quantity of energy to the adolescents’ food plan. It’s value noting that each rice and plain white bread had been each categorized as wholesome meals in our research. Due to this fact, it is rather probably that these meals contributed to our discovering that adolescent ladies consumed extra wholesome than unhealthy meals. This stated, utilizing fibre content material as a further criterion to categorise meals might have offered a greater image of the standard of wholesome meals that had been consumed.
Current UNICEF knowledge  revealed that worldwide, 42% of adolescents in LMIC consumed carbonated gentle drinks at the very least as soon as a day. Consumption of sugary drinks was additionally widespread in our research, with 25% of adolescents interviewed reporting that they consumed sugary drinks day by day. Excessive consumption of sugary drinks has been recognized as problematic, not solely due to the excessive content material of sugar but in addition due to the opportunity of them changing extra wholesome drinks resembling water and milk. Solely 2% of adolescents in our research consumed milk and dairy merchandise day by day, which has similarities to findings from Keats et al.’s assessment  that confirmed that solely 6% of African adolescents consumed milk and dairy merchandise day by day. This stated plain water was nonetheless the beverage of alternative amongst adolescents in our research.
It is very important notice that our research did discover that adolescents had been partaking in some wholesome behaviours, resembling having breakfast, consuming three meals a day, and consuming plain water. Furthermore, whereas most had been having breakfast and consuming three meals a day, these had been typically taken outdoors the house. Due to this fact, these meals might have been of decrease dietary high quality .
Lastly, the dietary sample of adolescent ladies taking part in our research was very completely different from that of the EAT-Lancet reference for a nutritious diet. For instance, their food plan was excessive in refined grains and processed meals together with sweets. Adolescent ladies must be inspired to undertake the EAT-reference for a nutritious diet because it may assist stop malnutrition and power illnesses whereas additionally stopping environmental deterioration and human dying .